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Introduction to Pipeline Rehabilitation

Table of Contents

PREFACE

 

Today Utilities providing sewerage and drainage services are faced with unprecedented requirement for developing and managing subsurface networks due to increasing urban loads. The requirement is being accelerated more due to Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JnNURM) projects. Growth rate of sensitization about Trenchless amongst working engineers of various municipal bodies is quite low due to non-availability of information and details of the latest developments in the sector. Result is that such several pipelines are left to brave the forces of nature without proper maintenance leading to the destruction of network which otherwise could have been protected with lesser effort earlier. The need of the hour is proper sensitization and education of operating engineers from these utilities.

With a view to above IndSTT is embarking upon a nation wide training program for Sewer Rehabilitation Works titled ‘National Sewer Rehabilitation Training (NSRT)’. Under the program, a series of 63, two day long training workshops are being organized in 63 different JnNURM cities in three phases. They would be introductory courses on Trenchless for the Municipal and other city authorities‘ engineers developing and managing utilities in JnNURM cities.

The first phase is planned for Type A cities where Civic Engineers from the specific city and the near about Type B and Type C cities would also be invited to participate. Subsequently in the next phase the program would shift to Type B cities where Engineers from specific cities and the near about Type C cities would be invited. Finally in the third stage it will move to Type C cities for their engineers and engineers from the near about areas. These workshops will help sensitizing the executing engineers and help promoting Trenchless applications across the nation.

The book in your hands is the reference manual for such workshops. Similar to workshops it is also structured in five main sections, viz. Introduction to Sewer Rehabilitation, Initial Pipeline Surveys, Defect Coding & Rehabilitation Planning, Rehabilitation Methods, and Trenchless Construction Methods. It is expected to provide the background information on Introduction to Sewer Rehabilitation by way of Sewer Performance Requirements; Performance Assessment; and Rehabilitation Prioritization. In the next section it discusses Initial Pipeline Surveys through Introduction to Pipeline Condition Assessment; Surveying – Hydraulic, Environmental, Structural, & Operational; Introduction to Subsurface Utility Engineering; and Flow Monitoring, Infiltration and Inflow. The subsequent section deals the Defect Coding through Sewer Defect Codes – Need and usage; Basics of Coding Principles; and Internationally Practiced Defect Code Definitions; Condition Reporting and Solution Development for rehabilitation. Rehabilitation methods cover pipeline repairs through Restoration Process, Injection Process, & Sealing Process, Pipeline renovation activities through coating and lining processes, and finally replacement through trenchless methods. The last section covers Trenchless Construction Methods like Cured-In-Place Pipe; Sliplining; Close fit Pipe; Spray Lining; Thermoformed Pipe etc.

Other than the workshop the book is expected to provide Introduction to Pipeline Rehabilitation to the readers and it is expected that it is going to be equally successful as other Trenchless Introductory Book, Basics of Trenchless Technology. As the Executive Director of IndSTT, I have the privilege to invite the readers to the interesting and challenging world of Trenchless Technology.

Prof. Niranjan Swarup
Executive Director
Indian Society for Trenchless Technology


Table of Contents

 

Chapter 1: Pipeline Rehabilitation

5~14

1.1

Introduction

5

1.2

Pipeline Performance Requirements

5

1.3

Pipeline Failure

6

1.4

Performance Assessment

10

1.5

Rehabilitation Prioritization

13

1.6

Conclusion

14

Chapter 2: Introduction to Pipeline Condition Assessment

15~24

2.1

Introduction

15

2.2

Inspection (survey)

15

2.3

Monitoring

15

2.4

Leakage inspection techniques

17

2.5

Measurement-based leak monitoring techniques

20

2.6

District meter areas (DMAs)

22

2.7

Model-based leak monitoring techniques

23

2.8

Real-time transient model-based methods (RTTM)

23

2.9

Conclusion

24

Chapter 3: Direct Condition Assessment Methods

25~33

3.1

Introduction

25

3.2

External Corrosion Direct Assessment (ECDA)

25

3.3

Internal Corrosion Direct Assessment

26

3.4

Nondestructive testing and evaluation

27

3.5

Pipe scanner and evaluation technology (PSET)

29

3.6

Laser-based scanning systems (LBSS)

29

3.7

Electromagnetic (EM) techniques

29

3.8

Ultrasonic Techniques

32

3.9

Acoustic Techniques

33

3.10

Conclusion

33

Chapter 4: Indirect Condition Assessment Methods

34~38

4.1

Introduction

34

4.2

pH

34

4.3

Resistivity

34

4.4

Linear Polarisation Resistance (LPR)

35

4.5

Guided waves (GW)

35

4.6

Georadar

35

4.7

Ground penetrating radar (GPR)

36

4.8

Field signature method (FSM)

36

4.9

Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring

36

4.10

Impact Echo (IE)

37

4.11

Mechanical (MAC) method

37

4.12

Free-vibration (FV) method

38

4.13

Conclusion

38

Chapter 5: Network Condition Survey & Recording

39~62

5.1

Introduction

39

5.2

Network Data

39

5.3

Hydraulic investigation

45

5.4

Rain gauging

49

5.5

Event monitoring of ancillary structures

51

5.6

Measuring infiltration and exfiltration

51

5.7

Build and verify hydraulic model

51

5.8

Assess hydraulic performance

55

5.9

Environmental investigation

56

5.10

Use of verified models

59

5.11

Non-modelled environmental impact

59

5.12

Structural Investigation

59

5.13

Prepare programme

59

5.14

Structural measurements

60

5.15

Pipeline location

60

5.16

Pipe deformation and crack detection

61

5.17

Network Condition Survey & Recording

61

5.18

Conclusion

62

Chapter 6: Subsurface Utility Engineering

63~69

6.1

Introduction

63

6.2

Components

63

6.3

Historical Utility Records Research (Quality Level D)

63

6.4

Site Assessment (Quality Level C)

64

6.5

Designation (Quality Level B)

64

6.6

Non-Destructive Air-Vacuum Excavation (Quality Level A)

66

6.7

Data Management

67

6.8

Conclusion

69

Chapter 7:  Defect Coding & Rehabilitation Planning

70~75

7.1

Sewer Defect Codes – Need and usage

70

7.2

Basics of Coding Principles

70

7.3

Internationally Practiced Defect Code Definitions;

70

7.4

Standardized Coding Form

74

7.5

Standard Coding Form

75

7.6

Sewer Condition Codes

75

7.7

International Development

75

Chapter 8:  Defect Coding & Rehabilitation Planning

76~81

8.1

Introduction

76

8.2

Repair

77

8.3

Renovation

78

8.4

Replacement

80

8.5

Conclusion

81

Chapter 9:  Trenchless Construction

82~94

9.1

Introduction

82

9.2

Renovation Systems for Non-Man Entry pipelines

82

9.3

Localized Repairs

82

9.4

Renovation Systems for Man-Entry pipelines

82

9.5

Renovation Systems For Non-Manentry Pipeline

83

9.6

Lining with Cured-In-Place-Pipes

87

9.7

Localized Repair

89

9.8

Renovation Systems For Man-Entry Pipelines

92

9.9

Conclusion

94


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