Waste Management & Trenchless Technology
Whenever we tend to settle people, may it be a
permanent habitat or in the passing, waste always gets generated. A fact of
life is that waste is continually being produced and never completely
disappears. Waste treatment often produces secondary waste. The environmental
services industry is continually looking for better methods to control
pollution and remediate sites where pollution damage has been done. With the
limited land space at our disposal it becomes necessary that we must manage
this waste in a fruitful way that benefits the settlement or at least does
not harm it. The process of this management has several parts and few of
those have been covered in this book.
If we look at the waste management process the basic work
involved is to make the waste harmless to the society. A minute observation
can show that it comprises of several actions like collecting the waste,
conveying it to a treatment location, treating and then finally disposing it
in a harmless way. The structure of this book is in the same order.
The first action is the collection of waste or sewage from their
respective generation locations. This is dealt in the first chapter. Once a
process of collection is identified the next step is to construct such
systems/networks which can be done by the conventional e.g. open cut
excavations or trenchless methods. This is dealt in the second chapter. The
next issue is the development of utilities or lifelines below the ground and
their data management. This is dealt under Subsurface Utility Engineering
covered under third chapter.
Having ground profile details available and a developed
subsurface network the next step in the management process would be to
identify the defects of networks. This is done by various pipeline condition
assessment methods like CCTV inspections, EM surveys. Once such defects are
identified the major issue is of recording and reporting this data. For such
requirements internationally a system is presently in use. The system is
called as Uniform Defect Coding. The fourth chapter deals with these issues.
Having identified the defects the obvious action would be to
rehabilitate or renew the defective portions of the pipeline networks. Such
issues are explained in the next two chapters.
By undertaking the above operation one can be sure that his
sewage is flowing to the treatment location which can be a sewage treatment
plant. But that is not the end of the battle! One needs to treat it in the
most appropriate manner and with the progress the quality of the effluent
always goes down and therefore a continuous development of treatment
processes. The next chapter deals with the latest processes of sewage
The final and the most important part of this operation is the
disposal of the refuse from the treatment. It should be disposed off in a
completely harmless manner. These issues are dealt in the eighth chapter.
One of the socially useful and productive uses of the refuse or
end product from any waste treatment process is their use in construction
activities. The ninth chapter deals with such issues.
Through these nine chapters a concise
discussion about the waste and sewage management trends has been presented.
The intent is to provide information about the recent developments of the
sector for educational purpose. Any design or process selection is not
suggested and the reader is explicitly requested to use expert support or
conduct further evaluations before considering using any of the
methods/techniques presented herein. The details presented in this book are owned
by respective organizations/individuals that have the copyright/patent of the
respective material. Respective acknowledgements have been included in the
acknowledgement section. This inclusion should not be construed as an
acceptance of CIDC or its stakeholders about the methods discussed and the
views presented. CIDC and its stakeholders will not accept any claim
whatsoever for any losses arising out of the use of any of the techniques to
the reader, his or her employers and others related or unrelated.
Dr. Niranjan Swarup
Indian Society for
counted from 15th Sept. 2006.